COPD patients are prone to develop infections. SCT boosts the response of the patient to be protected against infections in the future.
MSCs have shown an antimicrobial role and thus, perhaps having benefits in combating lung infections. Antimicrobial proteins secreted by MSCs can enhance immune cell function, thus stimulate bacterial clearance.
Stem cells regenerate damaged tissues or cells. Translated in acute and chronic inflammatory lung disease patients, this can look like restored/improved pulmonary function that can reflect an improvement of physical indicators and quality of life factors.
Studies regarding Stem Cell Therapy on patients with lung inflammatory processes have shown an improvement in oxygen saturation, improved energy production, and cell function.
Asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and occupational respiratory diseases affect millions of people around the world.
The lungs are directly exposed to the external environment, requiring constant immune surveillance for homeostasis and health[1,2]. Immune dysregulation and inflammation are key components of both infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases.
Although MSCs are multipotent, meaning they can change into several cell types according to specific stimuli[4,5], these cells have shown to have immunomodulatory effects by interfering with inflammatory responses. MSCs can recognize the microenvironment, modify their response in order to survive, secrete specific molecules and modulate the behavior of surrounding cells[6,7].
When MSCs are administered intravenously they reach the lungs immediately as their first pass. In chronically diseased lungs, MSCs appear to promote repair through several mechanisms: tissue regeneration[8,14], reduction of lung edema, improvement of energy metabolism[10,11], protection against microorganisms, reduction of proinflammatory activity[6,13] leading to a potential improvement in quality of life.
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2. Lloyd CM, Marsland BJ. Lung homeostasis: influence of age, microbes, and the immune system. Immunity. 2017. 46:549-61.
3. Postma DS, Rabe KF. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2015. 313:1241-9.
4. Ferreira Cruz F, Macedo Rocco R. The potential of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for chronic lung disease. Exp Rev Resp Med. 2019.
5. Wecht S, Rojas M. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic lung disease. Respirology. 21:1366-75.
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11. Islam MN, Das SR, Emin MT, et al. Mitochondrial transfer from bone-marrow-derived stromal cells to pulmonary alveoli protects agains acute lung injury. Nat Med. 2012. 18:759-65.
12. Alcayaga-Miranda F, Cuenca J, Khoury M. Antimicrobial activity of mesenchymal stem cells: current status and new perspectives of antimicrobial peptide-based therapies. Front Immunol. 2017. 8:339.
13. Bernardo ME, Fibbe WE. Mesenchymal stromal cells: sensores and switchers of inflammation. Stem Cell. 2013. 13:392-402.
14. Srour N, Thébaud B. Mesenchymal stromal cells in animal bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis models: a systematic review. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015. 4. 1500-10.