Stem Cells can significantly reduce inflammation in the body, thus greatly improving the body’s ability to fight illness.
Stem cells fight cellular inflammation (the main source of pain) that results in pain elimination, and overall improved condition.
Stem cell allows the patient to regain control over their lives, while stopping disease progression, easing the pain, and strengthening the body’s healing mechanisms.
Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction can occur in acute or chronic phases. Such processes can be caused by[1-4]:
- Neurodegeneration: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
- Immunological alterations: Multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, etc.
- Ischemia: Stroke.
- Mechanical injury: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), Chronic Traumatic encephalopathy, etc.
- Other factors: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), cerebral palsy (CP), etc.
Current research shows that the CNS has a relatively limited ability to recover [4,5] with many pathological conditions still untreatable or not efficiently managed by standard medical care.
Studies have shown that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may improve neurological disease in the following ways:
- Homing to the injured regions: MSCs have proven to be able to home to injured areas after transplantation[7-10].
- Secretion of neuroprotective factors: MSCs can secrete a series of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and various enzymes, influencing cell migration and immune regulation[7,11].
- Immunoregulation: MSCs are specialized cells with low immunogenicity. MSCs regulate the function of immune cells by suppressing the production of antibodies by B cells, activation of T cells, and the secretion of cytokines by NK cells[7,12].
MSCs may secrete support growth factors, cytokines for neural healing and repair. Many studies have shown no serious adverse reactions following the use of MSCs for various disorders .
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1. Badyra B, Sulkowski M, Milczarek O, Majka M. Mesenchymal stem cells as a multimodal treatment for nervous system diseases. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2020; 9:1174-89.
2. Fu H, Hardy J, Duff KE. Selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Neurosci. 2018;21(10):1350-8.
3. Mortezaee K, Khanlarkhani N, Beyer C, Zendedel A. Inflammasome: its role in traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. J Cell Physiol. 2018. 233(7):5150-9.
4. Pierce AA, Xu AW. De novo neurogenesis in adult hypothalamus as a compensatory mechanism to regulate energy balance. J Neurosci. 2010. 30(2):723-30.
5. Louveau A, Herz J, Alme MN, et al. CNS lymphatic drainage and neuroinflammation are regulated by meingeal lymphatic vasculature. Nat Neurosci. 2018;21(10):1380-91.
6. Castorina A, Szychlinska M, Marzagalli R, Musumeci G. Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapt as a potential treatment in neurodegenerative disorders: is the escape from senescence an answer? Neural Regen Res. 2015. 10(6): 850-8.
7. Yao P, Zhou L, Zhu L, Zhou B, Yu Q. Mesenchymal stem cells: a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Eur Neurol. 2020. 83:235-41.
8. Dazzi F, Krampera M. Mesenchymal stem cells and autoimmune diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2011. 24(1): 49-57.
9. Guescini M, Genedani S, Stocchi V, Agnati LF. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells release exosomes carrying mtDNA. J Neural Transm. 2010. 117(1):1-4.
10. Fatimah SS, Tan HC, Chua K, Fariha MMN, Tan AE, Hayati AR. Stemness and angiogenic gene expression changes of serial-passage human amnion mesenchymal stem cells. Micovasc Res. 2013. 86:21-9.
11. Galipeau J, Sensébé L. Mesenchymal stromal cells: clinical challenges and therapeutic oportunities. Cell Stem Cell. 2018. 22(6): 824-33.
12. Mundra V, Gerling IC, Mahato RI. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy. Mol Pharm. 2013. 10(1):77-89.
13. Yin JQ, Zhu J, Ankrum JA. Manufacturing of primed mesenchymal stromal cells for therapy. Nat Biome Eng. 2019. 3(2):90-104.